Type of electrical supplies
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Power Supply Circuit. …
1) SMPS- Switched Mode Power Supply. …
2) Uninterruptible Power Supply. …
3) AC Power Supply. …
4) DC Power Supply. …
5) Regulated Power Supply. …
6) Programmable Power Supply. …
7) Computer Power Supply.
The power supply is the essential component in every electrical or electronic system. There are various requirements that need to be considered while choosing an exact power supply such as; necessities of power for the circuit or load mainly include voltage and current. The safety features of the power supply circuit like current and voltage limits for protecting the load, efficiency, physical size, and system noise immunity. In this article, we look into the definition of a power supply, different types of power supplies, and how they work. These power supplies are mainly used for measurement, maintenance, test, and product expansion activities.
The supply of electric power to an electrical load is called power supply. The main function of the power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current and frequency to power the load. Electrical outlet, energy storage device such as batteries, fuel cells, generator, solar power converters are generally known as power sources.
Power supply is classified into different categories. In our subsequent sections, we will see what the different categories are.
DC Power Supply
Such type of supply supplies a constant DC voltage to the loads. It may deliver from a DC source or an AC source.
AC energy can deliver DC power with the help of a rectifier, which converts the transformer output voltage to a varying DC voltage. The DC voltage passes through an electronic filter, which turns it into an unregulated DC voltage. There is also a register in series with the output to limit charging current and the final output power is fed to the load.
Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS)
The main input is converted to DC voltage via rectifier and filter and then switched on and off at a high frequency (10 KHz- 1 MHz) by an electronic switch. It has a safety feature to protect the device and the user.
Linear regulator converts a varying DC voltage to a constant. There is a current limiting function to protect the power supply and load from overcurrent. It is independent of fluctuation in input voltage and loads impedance to provide a steady value.
AC Power Supply
AC power supply can be taken from the main supply transferred to the desired voltage with the help of step up and step down transformer. This supply is divided into a single-phase and a three-phase system.
Programmable Power Supply
A PPS provides remote control operation through an analog input or digital interface such as RS 232. The controlled properties include voltage, current and frequency (in case of AC).
Uninterruptible Power Supply
UPS has a feature to take power from two or more sources simultaneously. It is used as a backup supply as it takes over the load in dropout or failure condition of main supply. The process is so fast that the load never experiences an interruption.
High Voltage Power Supply
HDPS supplies the bulk of energy, which is hundreds or thousands of volts for applications above 20KV. It includes voltage multiplier or high turns ratio, high voltage transformer or both to produce a high voltage.